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20 years - 20 milestones

Researcher with test tubes

There are now more than 3500 published papers attesting to the bioactivities of fucoidans. From gut health and immune support through to wound healing and cosmetic applications - global fucoidan research continues to accelerate.

Summarised below are a selection of key research outcomes published over the course of the past two decades.

1. Brown marine algae; a survey of therapeutic potential. Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 2003
An overview of the potential therapeutic benefits of fucoidans.

2. Antiviral activity of Undaria pinnatifida against herpes simplex virus. Phytotherapy Research, 2004
In vitro studies on the activity of fucoidans towards various clinical strains of the herpes simplex virus.

3. Fucoidan: structure and bioactivity. Molecules, 2008
The most highly cited fucoidan paper. An excellent summary of research progress on structure and bioactivity of various fucoidans.

4. A combined phase I and II open label study on the effects of a seaweed extract nutrient complex on osteoarthritis. Biologics, 2010
A human clinical study demonstrating oral fucoidan supplementation decreased osteoarthritis symptoms. The safety of oral fucoidans consumed at a high dose over a 12 week period was also confirmed.

5. Therapies from Fucoidan; multifunctional marine polymers review paper. Marine Drugs, 2011
A comprehensive review providing a guide to fucoidan research undertaken between 2000 and 2010.

6. Formation of an adherent hematopoietic expansion culture using fucoidan. Annals of Hematology, 2011
Fucoidan was suggested as potential compound for artificial bone marrow in combination with other matrix molecules.

7. Fucoidan prevents depression-like behavior in rats exposed to repeated restraint stress. Journal of Natural Medicines, 2013
Fucoidan was identified as a potential agent for addressing complex symptoms of depression disorder.

8. Fucoidan induces cancer cell apoptosis by modulating the endoplasmic reticulum stress cascades. PLoS One, 2014
Fucoidan was shown to exert anti-tumor function by modulating endoplasmic reticulum stress cascades.

9. Topical benefits of two fucoidan-rich extracts from marine macroalgae. Cosmetics, 2015
A comprehensive review paper discussing a variety of clinical and in vitro studies exploring the cosmetic bioactivity of high purity fucoidan. 

10. Fucoidan extracts ameliorate acute colitis. PLoS One 2015
Oral fucoidan supplementation of mice significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis.

11. Prophylactic administration of fucoidan represses cancer metastasis by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in lewis tumor-bearing mice. Marine Drugs, 2015 
Fucoidan was shown to minimise cachectic symptoms and inhibit lung carcinoma metastasis in a mouse model.

12. Fucoidan improves serum lipid levels and atherosclerosis through hepatic SREBP-2-mediated regulation. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, 2016
High purity fucoidan improved serum lipid levels in a mouse model. 

13. Combination of fucoidan-based magnetic nanoparticles and immunomodulators enhances tumour-localized immunotherapy. Nature Nanotechnology, 2018
A therapeutic fucoidan–dextran-based magnetic nanomedicine (IO@FuDex3) combined with a checkpoint inhibitor and T-cell activators helped address an immunosuppressive tumour.

14. Fucoidan exerts antidepressant-like effects in mice via regulating the stability of surface AMPARs. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2019
Two mouse models identify fucoidan as a potential supplementary non invasive treatment for depression by inhibition of hippocampal inflammation.

15. Oral fucoidan attenuates lung pathology and clinical signs in a severe influenza A mouse model. Marine Drugs, 2020
Fucoidans were shown to effectively reduce clinical symptoms and lung damage in a severe Influenza A H1N1 model.

16. Modulation of gene expression in a sterile atopic dermatitis model and inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus adhesion by fucoidan. Dermatopathology, 2021
High purity fucoidan extracts were shown to have potential in assisting with the future management of atopic dermatitis.

17. Fucoidan/chitosan nanoparticles functionalized with anti-ErbB-2 target breast cancer cells and impair tumor growth in vivo. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2021
Fucoidan/chitosan nanoparticles loaded with the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine and functionalised with ErbB-2 antibody on their surface were shown to target breast cancer cells and impair tumour growth both in vivo and in vitro.

18. Fucoidan ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis by modulating gut microbiota and bile acid metabolism. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2022
Fucoidan was shown to suppress colonic inflammation and repair the gut barrier in colitis mice. 

19. Fucoidan independently enhances activity in human immune cells and has a cytostatic effect on prostate cancer cells in the presence of Nivolumab. Marine Drugs, 2022
High purity fucoidan compounds activated human PBMCs and reduced prostate cancer cell numbers in combination with CD3 and Nivolumab.

20. Fucoidan mitigates gastric ulcer injury through managing inflammation, oxidative stress, and NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis. International Immunopharmacology, 2023
Fucoidan was shown to have promising gastro-protective properties by inhibiting inflammation and pyroptosis.

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